CURL 於 CLI 顯示 TCP、SSL 的連線時間

Linux 於 CLI 使用 CURL 想要測試看看網站的詳細連線速度,要怎麼做呢?

註:此篇「httpstat 分析 從 DNS查詢 到 下載完成各個階段的處理時間」也是使用 CURL 類似做法達成的,此篇是更簡化的版本。

CURL 於 CLI 顯示 TCP、SSL 的連線時間

CURL 要顯示詳細連線時間,可以使用下述命令:

  • $ curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{time_connect} + %{time_starttransfer} = %{time_total}\n" https://blog.longwin.com.tw

此篇文章作者將上述做點美化,下述摘錄自此篇:Timing Details With cURL – Joseph Scott

  1. vim ~/curl-format.txt
    \n
       time_namelookup:  %{time_namelookup}\n
          time_connect:  %{time_connect} (TCP handshake)\n
       time_appconnect:  %{time_appconnect} (SSL handshake)\n
      time_pretransfer:  %{time_pretransfer}\n
        ¦time_redirect:  %{time_redirect}\n
    time_starttransfer:  %{time_starttransfer}\n
                       ----------\n
            time_total:  %{time_total}\n
    \n
  2. $ curl -w "@curl-format.txt" -so /dev/null https://blog.longwin.com.tw
    • -w "@curl-format.txt" tells cURL to use our format file
    • -o /dev/null redirects the output of the request to /dev/null
    • -s tells cURL not to show a progress meter

上述的語法還是比較難記憶,寫成 Bash shell function 比較好用:

  1. vim ~/.bashrc
    function curltime {
        # curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{time_connect} + %{time_starttransfer} = %{time_total}\n" "$1"
        curl -w "@curl-format.txt" -so /dev/null "$1"
    }
  2. source ~/.bashrc
  3. curltime https://blog.longwin.com.tw

CURL 相關參數

CURL 除了上述的參數外,還有哪些參數可以使用呢?

  • man curl # 搜尋 -w, --write-out <format>
  • The variables available are:
    • content_type:The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any.
    • filename_effective:The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaningful if curl is told to write to a file with the --remote-name or --output option. It's most useful in combination with the --remote-header-name option.
    • ftp_entry_path:The initial path curl ended up in when logging on to the remote FTP server.
    • http_code:The numerical response code that was found in the last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In 7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to show the same info.
    • http_connect:The numerical code that was found in the last response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.
    • local_ip:The IP address of the local end of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6
    • local_port:The local port number of the most recently done connection
    • num_connects:Number of new connects made in the recent transfer.
    • num_redirects:Number of redirects that were followed in the request.
    • redirect_url:When an HTTP request was made without -L to follow redirects, this variable will show the actual URL a redirect would take you to.
    • remote_ip:The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6
    • remote_port:The remote port number of the most recently done connection
    • size_download:The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.
    • size_header:The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.
    • size_request:The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request.
    • size_upload:The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.
    • speed_download:The average download speed that curl measured for the complete download. Bytes per second.
    • speed_upload:The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload. Bytes per second.
    • ssl_verify_result:The result of the SSL peer certificate verification that was requested. 0 means the verification was successful.
    • time_appconnect:The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote host was completed.
    • time_connect:The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was completed.
    • time_namelookup:The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolving was completed.
    • time_pretransfer:The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer was just about to begin. This includes all pre-transfer
      commands and negotiations that are specific to the particular protocol(s) involved.
    • time_redirect:The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer before the final transaction was started. time_redirect shows the complete execution time for multiple redirections.
    • time_starttransfer:The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the first byte was just about to be transferred. This includes time_pre‐transfer and also the time the server needed to calculate the result.
    • time_total:The total time, in seconds, that the full operation lasted. The time will be displayed with millisecond resolution.
    • url_effective:The URL that was fetched last. This is most meaningful if you've told curl to follow location: headers.

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